The 2023 Nimdzi Interpreting Index: The Ranking of the Top 34 Largest Interpreting Service Providers

Report by Sarah Hickey and Rosemary Hynes.

Information contained in this report

  1. Ranking of the top interpreting companies
  2. Watchlist
  3. Changelog
  4. How we create the Nimdzi Interpreting Index
  5. TL;DR
  6. State of the interpreting market
  7. Growth of the largest interpreting providers in the world
  8. The Market
  9. Money
  10. Atlas
  11. Remote Simultaneous Interpreting: Which Platform Is Best For Me?
  12. Trends, driving forces, and predictions
  13. Conclusion

Ranking of the top interpreting companies

Chances are the information you came here for is the ranking of interpreting providers, which is presented in the table below. The ranking is based on revenue and lists the top 34 largest interpreting service providers worldwide.

Let’s just jump right in, shall we?


  • (v) verified, data provided by companies
  • (e) estimated revenue, based on extensive industry research


Interpreting service providers without a definitive revenue estimate

The Watchlist consists of companies that should be in the ranking but are not listed because they do not disclose, publish, or otherwise reveal their revenue. We provide visibility to such companies on the Watchlist to highlight their impact on the industry. 

The reason it is important for us to track these companies is that even though some might not compete for clients, they all compete for talent and resources. They also represent opportunities for technology providers and investors.

The companies are listed in alphabetical order.


A lot has changed on the ranking since the previous 2021 edition. Here is a brief overview to help you better navigate the ranking.

New arrivals on the Nimdzi Interpreting Index

  • Sorenson Communications — USD 453.8 million (e). US company Sorenson Communications is the largest provider of American Sign Language (ASL) interpreting services in the world and the market share leader for video relay services (VRS — a special, publicly funded video phone service for Deaf people) in the United States. Nimdzi has known for a long time that Sorenson is among the largest LSPs in the world. But so far, we only listed the company on our Watchlist of providers that do not disclose their revenue. However, public records now show that Sorenson reached USD 891.0 million in 2020 and USD 837.0 million in 2021. For 2022 we estimated a total revenue of USD 825.0 million for our Nimdzi 100 ranking. For the Interpreting Index we estimate that about 55% of Sorenson’s overall revenue is from interpreting services. 
  • DA Languages — USD 22.2 million (v). DA Languages is a translation and interpreting agency based in the United Kingdom. The company is most active in the public sector and for example holds a contract from the Department for Work and Pensions as well as several police contracts.
  • DigitalTolk — USD 29.9 million (v). DigitalTolk is based in Sweden and provides interpreting services in the public sector. The company predominantly focuses on remote interpreting and describes itself as a tech company rather than an LSP due to its proprietary platform that functions as a marketplace for interpreting services.
  • translate plus — USD 12.1 million (v). UK-based translate plus is one of Europe’s top language service providers by revenue. The company has a diversified client base, specializing in the manufacturing and marketing industries. translate plus used to be on our Watchlist in previous editions but was never featured in the ranking. This year the company officially disclosed their figures to us for the first time. Although only 3% of the translate plus’ revenue is derived from interpreting services, they managed to secure a spot among the largest provider in the world (position 25). 
  • Interprefy USD 14.0 million (v). Interprefy specializes in remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI) services and is based in Switzerland. Interprefy started out as a tech provider but has increasingly moved into the services space over the last few years. By now the one can no longer be separated from the other and we can fully consider their activities under the umbrella of “interpreting services”. This is why we have included them on our ranking for the first time and with 100% of their revenue. 
  • Hanna Interpreting Services USD 13.5 million (v). US-based LSP Hanna Interpreting Services focuses on interpreting services in the areas of healthcare, education, government, and social services. The company also provides document translations.
  • Interactio USD 8.9 million (v). Interactio specializes in RSI and is based in Lithuania. Interactio also started as a tech provider but has increasingly enlarged its service offering. Same as Interprefy, today, we cannot classify them any different than other language service provider that offer their own technology to their clients. This is why we are listing Interactio with 100% of their revenue. 
  • Sunyu Transphere USD 6.1 million (v). Chinese provider Sunyu Transphere is better known for its translation and localization services in the intellectual property (IP) and technology space, holding position 42 on our Nimdzi 100 ranking for the largest providers of all language services. However, the company also offers interpreting services and submitted their figures to us for the first time this year. 
  • Language NetworkUSD 4.0 million (v). US-based Language Network offers both translation and interpreting services and is most active in the healthcare, government, social services sectors.


LanguageLink ranked 15th in 2021, with a confirmed interpreting revenue of USD 24.0 million. BIG Language Solutions acquired the company in 2021, so now all interpreting operations from LanguageLink operate under the BIG Language Solutions brand. This is why LanguageLink was renamed to BIG Language Solutions in this year’s ranking. 

Acquired and removed from the ranking

  • Semantix held position 17 in the 2021 ranking, with a confirmed 2020 interpreting revenue of USD 19.2 million. Semantix was acquired by TransPerfect in July 2021 and no longer appears individually in the ranking.
  • Capita Translation and Interpreting is a household name in the industry and held position 24 on our ranking in 2021 with a confirmed interpreting revenue of USD 9.6 million. The UK-based provider is most active in the public sector and was acquired by LanguageLine Solutions in 2022. LanguageLine Solutions is the number one on our list and by far the largest provider of interpreting services in the world.
  • LUNA Language Services, a company listed on our Watchlist in previous editions, was fully removed from this year after being acquired by Globo in June 2023. Globo is on position 13 in this year’s ranking with a confirmed interpreting revenue of USD 33.4 million.

Moved to the watchlist

The below providers were moved from the ranking onto the Watchlist because they either did not respond to our requests for information or were unable to provide their revenue information and the data available in public records was insufficient to make an informed estimate.

  • Language Services Associates
  • Verztec
  • ONCALL Language Services
  • Welocalize
  • LanguageLoop
  • Geneva Worldwide
  • Hero Tolk
  • Language World Services
  • ASLI Interpreting Solutions (A New Language Partner)

How we create the Nimdzi Interpreting Index

During the course of this market analysis, Nimdzi uncovered interpreting companies that have previously been invisible in market reports because they do not participate in surveys and are reluctant to disclose their revenue. Nimdzi has employed an investigative approach and invested hundreds of hours into intense research, data collection, and analysis in order to present previously unavailable data.

We are very proud to offer broad access to our data. This ranking is offered to all who are interested. No paywall. No strings attached. Localization buyers, investors, savvy job seekers, and analysts are all welcome to use this document, just don’t forget to reference Nimdzi Insights, LLC, as the source. Interested parties are free to reach out to us directly should they have any questions.

  1. We concentrated on identifying LSPs with USD 4 million or more in revenue, with the assistance of in-country experts. In most countries, there are only a few providers of this size, and it is impossible for them to hide from local competitors because they hire staff, take part in requests for proposals, and employ a large number of translators. Once we identified the relevant LSPs, we researched information that could help us make more accurate estimates of their size and talked to the management directly to verify our findings.
  2. We’re listing interpreting revenue only, not overall language services revenue. In comparison to The Nimdzi 100 which provides a ranking of the largest language service providers (LSPs) in the world, the Nimdzi Interpreting Index focuses exclusively on the interpreting market. It can be difficult to identify individual revenues in external sources of information, such as annual reports, press releases, and stock listings. This is why we made the effort to reach out to businesses directly to talk about their interpreting services and the revenue obtained from these services.
  3. The interpreting market is extremely fragmented — and in several ways. Firstly, there are different types of interpreting (e.g. medical, conference, legal), as well as different modes (e.g. simultaneous vs consecutive, onsite vs remote). This is why we have included an overview of the core interpreting business of each company in our ranking and on our watchlist. Secondly, there is an abundance of smaller companies on the interpreting market. Many of them did not make the list, even though together they might make a significant contribution to the market.
  4. We use data from the latest fiscal year for each company. This means the numbers for some companies will not reflect 2022 calendar year revenues. 
  5. Our definition of interpreting services includes: onsite interpreting, video remote interpreting (VRI), telephone or over-the-phone interpreting (OPI), remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI), conference interpreting, sign language interpreting, video relay services (VRS), equipment rental for interpreting, and related services.
  6. Growth rates are calculated in USD. 
  7. We use average annual currency conversion rates to US dollars, published by the Internal Revenue Service of the United States for each day of trading in 2022.


Market size and growth

  • We estimate that the interpreting services industry reached $10.0 billion in 2022 and should grow to $10.7 billion in 2023.
  • Using a CAGR of 6.2% in the coming years, the industry will reach $13.6 billion by 2027.
  • The combined revenues of the top 34 positions in this year’s ranking increased by 52.6% compared to the 36 companies from the 2021 edition of our ranking (the growth figure is reflecting two financial years — 2021 and 2022).
  • The top 34 in this year’s ranking recorded an average growth of 61.8% between the years 2020 and 2022.

Mergers and acquisitions

  • Ever since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic we have witnessed a lot of investment in virtual interpreting technology (VIT). Of these, it appears that investment in OPI and VRI is yielding the desired results, whereas not RSI providers that received investment could maintain the expected growth. 
  • M&A activity remains high, with many large provider buying medium-sized ones to enlarge their portfolio and geographical footprint.

Geographical distribution

  • Out of 72 medium-to-large-sized companies identified in 2022, 50.0% are headquartered in North America and 36.1% in Europe. Companies from Asia and Oceanis each represent 6.9% of the geographical distribution. 
  • Strategic partnerships: A trend identified for the wider language services market appears to have trickled down to interpreting providers. Numerous companies talked about offering additional services to their clients, including consulting services, in-housing of staff, and solving non-language related challenges in an effort to increase their value proposition and be seen as a true partner, rather than just a vendor.
  • Talent shortage: Not a new trend but one that appears to intensify in the interpreting market (as opposed to the market for all language services where this challenge has improved). Interpreting providers highlight challenges filling onsite assignments and struggling with highly fluctuating demand (e.g. refugee crises). Some report that providers are increasingly taking on the training burden in an effort to increase their talent pool. 
  • Multilingual meetings shifting to event management: Multilingual meetings are no longer just about interpreting but a whole range of services that facilitate multilingual events in the virtual and physical world. In addition, what we are seeing is an increasing shift toward event management (a much larger market). We predict that over time, the different language services for multilingual meetings will simply become features on event platforms clients can avail of. 
  • Remote versus onsite interpreting: Although onsite interpreting has returned, our 2021 prediction that remote interpreting is here to stay appears to pan out. In addition, hybrid meetings are on the rise. 
  • AI for the interpreting industry: AI has made incredible strides in recent years. In the interpreting industry, we are seeing advances in machine interpreting thanks to investment in speech-to-speech translation technologies. We can expect adoption and use-cases to increase in the coming years.

State of the interpreting market

When we last published the Nimdzi Interpreting Index in September 2021, we were looking back at revenues and trends from companies’ fiscal year 2020 — a challenging year for interpreting services, to say the least. While some were struggling because onsite interpreting had effectively come to a halt once the pandemic hit, others were overwhelmed with the sudden flood of demand for remote interpreting services, managing entirely new meeting formats, and figuring out integrations with major video conferencing platforms (e.g. Zoom, MS Teams, Webex). For many language service providers (LSPs), these first few months of the pandemic (March to June 2020) were a mix of shock-induced paralysis and scrambling to catch up with the new demands of a market that had changed overnight. It is not surprising that during this time, the majority of interpreting service providers experienced a dip in their growth curve, before adjusting to the situation and ultimately seeing growth not only resume but skyrocket in the second half of 2020 and throughout 2021. And just as everyone had settled into the “new normal,” meeting restrictions were lifted and the situation changed again. 

So what does today’s interpreting market look like, in mid 2023?

In previous editions of the Interpreting Index and the Nimdzi 100 (our ranking of the 100 largest LSPs in the world) we already talked about the fact that interpreting has gone more mainstream, meaning that it is increasingly moving into a top-of-mind position for buyers and starting to show up in more areas of everyday life. That the overall demand for interpreting services has increased, in many ways fueled by the boom in remote interpreting since the onset of the pandemic, is reflected in the growth of the top 34 providers on our ranking.

Looking at the data from this year’s study, the figures are overwhelmingly positive. 25 of the 34 LSPs on our ranking report positive growth for their latest financial years 2021 and 2022. Out of these, 15 had double-digit growth and five even reported triple-digit growth figures. Only five companies reported negative growth and the remaining four companies on our list did not submit their 2020 revenue information to allow for this calculation. This shows that even though many interpreting providers struggled at the beginning of the pandemic, the majority came out stronger. 

Looking ahead, it will be interesting to see how the market will “settle” now that even the last COVID-19 restrictions have been lifted. In interviews for this report, a few LSPs reported that volumes for remote assignments are in decline as onsite assignments are returning. At the same time, we can observe that there is still a significantly higher demand for remote interpreting than in pre-pandemic times. Especially as internet bandwidth is improving in public places (e.g. hospitals) and people have adjusted to the comforts that come with any form of remote work, we can expect that remote interpreting will still be in high demand from here on out, just with more moderate growth than the hockey stick growth curve experienced during the height of the pandemic.

Growth of the largest interpreting providers in the world

Between 2020 and 2022, the combined revenues of the top 34 positions on our ranking grew by 52.6%. In comparison, between the years 2018 and 2020, the combined revenues of the largest interpreting providers only grew by 17.8% — a difference of 34.8 percentage points.

The ranking segment with the strongest growth are the companies in the top 10 positions, whose combined revenues increased by 62.5% over the last two years (compared to 20.7% for the previous two-year period). This is closely followed by the top 20, whose revenues rose 54.8% between 2020 and 2022 (compared to 18.9% for 2018-2020). The combined revenues of positions 21 to 34 on our ranking grew by 23.7% as compared to the same ranking segment two years ago (compared to 5.4% growth between 2018 and 2020).

Growth by ranking segment between 2020 and 2022

Note: In the 2018 edition of the Index we listed 33 companies, in 2021 we listed 36 companies on 35 positions, and this year we have 34 companies on our ranking.

Growth by ranking segment, comparison between 2018-2020 and 2020-2022

Note: In the 2018 edition of the Index we listed 33 companies, in 2021 we listed 36 companies on 35 positions, and this year we have 34 companies on our ranking.

Combined revenues of the top providers on our rankings in 2018, 2020, and 2022 (fiscal years)

Note: In the 2018 edition of the Index we listed 33 companies, in 2021 we listed 36 companies on 35 positions, and this year we have 34 companies on our ranking.

Looking at the figures of the individual companies on this year’s ranking, the average growth rate for the financial period between 2020 and 2022 comes out at 61.8%

While all of these growth figures are impressive, it needs to be stressed that they represent growth over two financial years (since our report comes out every two years). In addition, a significant portion of this growth can be attributed to mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the interpreting market (see M&A section of this report). That being said, a number of companies on our list also reported record growth due to increased demand. The most significant spike was recorded in remote interpreting, but even onsite assignments increased for some. In addition, several LSPs on our list cited higher volumes due to large government contracts. So while M&A played a role in the growth rates for the 34 largest interpreting providers in the world, it certainly was not the only factor.

The Market

Considering the data from the top 34 global interpreting providers, the survey for this report, as well as numerous interviews with market players of all sizes, we are confident that the interpreting market continued to grow in 2021 and 2022. In fact, as reported in the previous section, growth was overwhelmingly high over the last two years (61.8% on average for the individual providers and 52.6% when it comes to the combined revenues of the top 34 positions as compared to the previous ranking). 

Market size and five-year growth projection

In 2021, we estimated that market reached USD 8.3 billion in 2020 and would reach USD 9.3 billion in 2022, growing to USD 11.0 billion by 2025 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.8%. Considering the high growth figures for the top 34 positions between the years 2020 and 2022, we are revising our estimate to reflect a one-off increase of 10% for each of these two years for the market at large. Going forward, we can expect growth to slow down as compared to the last two years but to be stronger than in pre-pandemic times (thanks to higher adoption levels and increased awareness). So from 2023 onward, we expect the market to growth at a CAGR of 6.2%. 

Taking all of this into account, our estimate is that the interpreting industry reached USD 10.0 billion in 2022 and should grow to USD 10.7 billion in 2023. Considering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.2 %, the industry would be valued at USD 13.6 billion by 2027.

Top 34 companies concentrate 23.7% of industry revenue

Although consolidation continues, the interpreting market is still predominantly made up of many small companies and one-person operations. The companies in our ranking accounted for just 23.7% of the overall interpreting industry in 2022 — a rise of 5.0% from 2020. Adding in the Watchlist, all 72 large interpreting providers tracked by Nimdzi accounted for 38.1% of the interpreting market in 2020.

In absolute figures, the 72 companies tracked by Nimdzi earned about USD 3.8 billion in their latest fiscal years. The top 10 companies were responsible for 51.7% of that total.

  • USD 1.97 billion in the top 10
  • USD 0.40 billion in the next 25
  • USD 1.44 billion approximately on the Watchlist 

Despite ongoing consolidation at the top, the industry is still predominantly made up of companies smaller than USD 4 million.


Mergers, acquisitions, and investment in 2021 and 2022

For a few years now, M&A activity as well and investment in the industry at large have been on the rise. In the interpreting sector, it doesn’t really come as a surprise that, with the explosion of virtual interpreting technologies (VIT) and innovation, investors' heads have been turning, and we’ve seen an influx in investment in VIT over the past few years.

Boostlingo, an interpreting delivery and management platform received USD 3.4 million in a Series A funding round in 2018 and then received a growth equity investment from Mainsail Partners in August 2021. However, the size of the investment was not disclosed. Originally focused on on-demand video remote interpreting (VRI) and over-the-phone interpreting (OPI) (aside from interpreter scheduling and management (IMS)), the company acquired remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI) platform Voiceboxer in March 2022 to round out their offerings in addition to acquiring former rival platform Interpreter Intelligence (another IMS and OPI/VRI platform). 

Cloudbreak-Martti (now part of UpHealth, which provides digital healthcare solutions, including remote interpreting) is another OPI/VRI tech provider that received funding. In February 2020, Cloudbreak announced a USD 10 million investment from Columbia Partners Private Capital of Bethesda, and according to the company’s website this was preceded by another investment of USD 25 million by Kayne Partners (date undisclosed). Last but not least, US-based, woman-run platform Jeenie raised USD 9.3 million in a Series A funding round on March 31, 2022. The company specializes in healthcare interpreting and also facilitates other use-cases through its VRI application, such as virtual meetings in the areas of legal and education.

Tech providers from the RSI scene have also caught investors’ attention. RSI platforms Interprefy, KUDO, and Interactio have all received investment over the past three years. The USD 30 million raised by Interactio remains the largest investment in a pure VIT solution to date (compared to Cloudbreak/UpHealth that focuses on digital healthcare solutions at large).

Investment in VIT, 2018-2022

What’s interesting to note is that although VIT providers from different kinds of the spectrum received funding, it appears that the investment is paying off better in the OPI/VRI sectors than the RSI field. After KUDO and Interactio raised significant funds (USD 27 million and USD 30 million respectively), both companies had layoffs one to two years later. This may quite possibly be related to the fact that the massive RSI boom experienced during the pandemic could not be sustained in post-pandemic times (despite the fact that online meetings and events are sticking around, just to a lesser extent than in 2020). On the contrary, VIT providers in the OPI/VRI space are still talking about hyper-growth spurts in 2023. Looking at the portfolios of the OPI/VRI companies who received funding — all of them derive a large portion of their business from the healthcare sector, a field that is less prone to high fluctuations in demand, especially given an aging population, paired with an increasing move toward telehealth in markets like the US.

While investment in the interpreting space was largely focused on the tech side, when it comes to M&A, there were a number of noteworthy activities on the LSP front over the last two years:

  • BIG Language Solutions acquiring LanguageLink (April 2021)
  • TransPerfect merging with Nordic leader Semantix (July 2021)
  • Propio Language Services acquiring LSP Ware (July 2022) and Telelanguage (August 2022)
  • LanguageLine Solutions acquiring Capita Translation and Interpreting (November 2022)
  • DA Languages acquiring Sign Solutions (December 2022)
  • Globo acquiring All Access Interpreters (April 2023) and LUNA Language Services (June 2023)

While some acquisitions might be driven by the desire to buy out (local) competition, others are more strategic partnerships in the company’s effort to enhance their service portfolio. Overall, these developments show that the interpreting market is evolving and that even companies from outside the interpreting industry are starting to see the potential for growth in the interpreting sector.

Gross profit margins for interpreting services

Nimdzi has been tracking the evolution of gross margins tied to both interpreting and translation services for a number of years and they have remained relatively stable over time. Average gross margins for translation are in the 40-50% (a well-run LSP would have gross margins in the high 40s), while in interpreting it has historically been between 30-40%. Data from this year’s Nimdzi 100 survey show that this generally still holds true. 29.7% of companies reported that their gross margins for translation services are in the 41-50% range. In addition, another 25.7% even said their gross margins for translation fall into the 51-60% bracket. On the interpreting side, 30.2% of respondents said their gross margins are in the 31-40% range and an additional 17.5% reported gross margins in the 21-30% bracket. 

In the 2021 edition of the Nimdzi Interpreting Index we reported that, for interpreting services, the gross margin range started widening to 30-50%, which we linked to the boom in remote interpreting that typically enjoys higher profit margins (less time intensive, no travel costs). This year, however, significantly fewer LSPs reported gross margins in the 41-50% bracket for interpreting services — only 14.3%, which is the same amount as those who said their gross margins are in the 11-20% range. It is not unlikely that this is related to the fact that more onsite assignments have returned (although remote interpreting is still going strong as well). 

Overall the results show that translation still remains the more profitable line of business.


Where the largest LSPs are

Out of 72 medium-to-large-sized companies identified in 2022, 50.0% are headquartered in North America and 36.1% in Europe. Companies from Asia and Oceania each represent 6.9% of the geographical distribution. Africa and South America have not yet produced an LSP that could be included in the Nimdzi Interpreting Index. 

Where the money is

The graph below represents the split by geographic region, based on our estimate of the total market size of USD 10.0 billion for interpreting services worldwide in 2022. 

The United States: the largest market for interpreting services

What both visualizations above illustrate is that the United States remains the largest market for interpreting services in the world. This is mostly due to laws that guarantee language access to people with limited English proficiency in public service and healthcare settings. In addition, the United States is ahead of the curb in the area of interpreting technology. For instance, remote interpreting solutions have been commonplace for a long time and continue to expand the market, especially in the healthcare industry ― whether that is OPI for 911 emergency calls, VRI with special tablets for consultations in the hospital or in vaccine centers, or telehealth providers integrating interpreting solutions into their platforms. 

Remote Simultaneous Interpreting: Which Platform Is Best For Me?

In this section, we’re going to focus on the solution that received the most significant boost in the virtual interpreting technology (VIT) space in recent years: remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI). As meetings and events moved online during the pandemic, requests for RSI skyrocketed and ever since, providers in this space have been adapting their solutions to the ever-evolving needs of new and existing clients. Today, there are many different types of RSI platforms that all cater to different use-cases. Naturally, this can make it hard to find one that is most suited for your business needs.

What are the different types of RSI platforms?

Since March 2020, we have learned about a whole host of different solutions for RSI. There are so many that it can be easy to get them all mixed up. So we have broken them down into four categories. 

  1. Video conferencing platforms without an RSI feature
  2. Video conferencing platforms with an RSI feature
  3. Standalone designated RSI platforms
  4. Virtual booth RSI platforms

Let’s take a look at each category in more detail.

1. Video conferencing platforms without an RSI feature

An example of a video conferencing platform which doesn’t have its own RSI capabilities is Skype. However, that doesn’t mean that it is impossible to do simultaneous interpreting on Skype, it just means that a workaround is needed. This could be: 

  • A separate over-the-phone interpreting (OPI) line for interpretation.
  • Two simultaneous meetings with the interpreters joining both and the listeners only joining the meeting with their language.
  • The use of a second audio channel via a social networking application, such as Whatsapp, so that participants can hear the interpretation.
  • An integration with a standalone RSI platform.

2. Video conferencing platforms with an RSI feature

Zoom is the biggest de facto RSI platform, judging by the number of meetings. Platforms like Zoom, Webex, Google Meet,and Microsoft Teams(MS Teams) fall under this category. MS Teams is the latest video conferencing platform to add an RSI feature in August 2022. Video conferencing platforms like these were not designed with multilingualism and RSI in mind, but added an RSI feature onto their interface when demand for remote multilingual meetings peaked during the pandemic. Subsequently, the RSI features on these platforms are relatively limited. For example, Zoom only added relay (i.e. when an interpreter interprets from a colleague’s output rather than from the original speaker, in a case where the interpreter doesn’t work with the current speaker’s language) in Spring 2022, and the Google Meet interpreting extension doesn’t allow for multiple booths. Features like a mute button, individual interpreter chats, a handover feature/button, a timer, and an audio volume-control button are often missing from these platforms as well. 

3. Standalone designated RSI platforms

This type of platform can host its own meetings but RSI is its raison d’être. Many examples of such platforms can be seen in our Language Technology Atlas. The interpreter control panel is quite complete and often aims to resemble that of an in-person booth as much as possible. There are two typical scenarios for the use of designated RSI platforms:

  1. The meeting takes place on the RSI platform in which all participants — speakers, attendees, and interpreters — join the same platform. 
  2. The meeting takes place on a different platform, e.g. Zoom, but the interpretation happens on the RSI platform. In this case, speakers and participants join the original meeting on Zoom and only the interpreters log into the RSI platform. The original audio from the meeting (and potentially the video) and the interpreter’s output are fed back and forth between the two platforms. 

In both cases, whether the meeting happens on the RSI platform or not, the interpreters are typically not visible to the speakers and attendees (although some platforms can enable this upon request). They act in the background, just as they would in an onsite meeting when they interpret from a physical booth.

4. Virtual booth RSI platforms

Just like with a physical soundproof booth at an onsite meeting, these platforms function alongside the original meeting taking place on a video conferencing platform. The two major distinctions from standalone RSI platforms are that virtual booths do not integrate with video conferencing platforms but, rather, run in parallel and that they don’t function as standalone meeting platforms. When using this technology, interpreters join the original meeting on a video conferencing platform so they can access the audio and video feeds directly. From there, the interpreters listen to the speeches and deliver the interpretation into the original meeting. However, the interpreters’ rendition is also transmitted into the virtual booth tool alongside the original meeting, so that the interpreters can listen to each other’s interpretation and take relay. 

Interpreters and clients may prefer virtual booths to standalone RSI platforms for three primary reasons:

  1. The process of injecting the original meeting audio into an RSI platform has been known to degrade sound or add artifacts. Therefore, because the interpreters are in the same meeting as the participants and their audio is fed directly into the meeting, using a virtual booth may reduce the risk of sound degradation in the injection process. 
  2. As the original audio is not fed into the virtual booth, the risk of copyright and privacy issues is minimized. 
  3. This type of technology can potentially work with any video conferencing platform, virtual event organizer, or streaming platform, making it quite versatile.

Which RSI solution is best for me?

The best RSI solution for you or your clients will depend on your requirements and budget. Here, we have created a brief table outlining the different RSI solutions and their advantages and disadvantages. 

Type of RSI solutionAdvantagesDisadvantages
Video conferencing platforms without an RSI featureLow cost
Ability to use the platform of your choice with a workaround
Interpreters can be present in the original meeting
Quite complicated setups that often require a tech team 
Limited interpreting features
The larger and more multilingual the meeting, the more complex these are to set up
Video conferencing platforms with an RSI featureLow cost
Basic RSI features
Interpreters can be present in the original meeting
Good event management features
Often requires tech savvy interpreters to work around the shortcomings of the interpreting features
No designated RSI technical team
Large, multilingual meetings can be hard to set up
Standalone designated RSI platformsOften have their own interpreter database for booking interpreters
Excellent RSI features for the interpreters
Can hold the meeting on the platform
Designated RSI technical teamInterpreters don’t need to perform beyond their role
Complicated setup if client chooses to use own technicians (vs. the RSI platform’s tech team)
Interpreters are typically not part of the original meeting but operate in the background
Event management features aren’t as developed as video conferencing platforms
Virtual booth RSI platformsMid-range cost
Excellent RSI features
Can work alongside the video conferencing platform of your choice
No injection of original video and sound into the RSI platform
Copyright and privacy issues are minimized
Interpreters can be present in the original meeting
Cannot function as a standalone meeting platform
No event management features
Can be confusing for interpreters to have to mute their mics in both the original meeting and the virtual booth
Often interpreters need at least two devices to be in the original meeting and the virtual booth

In this section, we highlight a number of key trends and driving forces that stood out from our analysis and predict how these will shape the market for language services in the coming years. 

Strategic partnerships via consulting services and more

For a couple of years now, we have been monitoring a trend we’ve been calling “the new LSP” in our Nimdzi 100 report (our analysis of the global market for all language services and ranking of the top 100 largest providers). And although this is not a new trend, it certainly is a continuous one that we see expressed in many different ways but with two core characteristics:

  1. Larger providers in our industry are moving away from transactional work and toward a more strategic partnership with their clients.
  2. LSPs are redefining their self image in an attempt to market themselves better.

At the core of this trend lies the desire of LSPs to not just be an external vendor but rather an extension of their clients’ operations. In their effort to achieve this, LSPs become hyper customer-centric, adding adjacent services, and embedding themselves deeply into their clients’ internal structure to a point that makes them almost irreplaceable (or at least harder to cut ties with).

When we talk about this trend in the Nimdzi 100, most of what we identified is rather true for translation and localization companies. It, therefore, was interesting to find that based on briefings with interpreting companies for this report, it appears that the same trend is starting to emerge in the interpreting market. 

When we talk about the “strategic partner” element in the Nimdzi 100, we identified a number of sub-categories in which we see this trend expressed: 

  • Adjacent services for an end-to-end solution
  • In-housing
  • Managed services and convenience
  • Going the extra mile
  • Rebranding

Now let’s see how they apply to interpreting service providers.

Adjacent services for an end-to-end solution

In the area of meetings and events, as well as corporate communication, interpreting service providers have expressed that they want their clients to turn to them whenever they have a need to improve communication, whether that is internal or external, multilingual or monolingual. Rather than just being considered an interpreting service provider, companies want to be viewed as experts for anything related to communication, including increasing internal efficiencies at a business through more effective communication — a communications consultant, so-to-speak. 


It is not uncommon for hospitals to have their own interpreting staff. However, in a medical environment, managing a team of interpreters might not always be the best use of time and resources for the client. So in some cases, hospitals fire their interpreters and then the same interpreters are hired back by the LSP and deployed in the same setting. In such a case, the client gets to keep the same staff but doesn’t have them on their own books anymore, saving the client time and money.

Convenience + Going the extra mile

More often than not, the crucial part, where an LSP can come in and help a client (as well as win business) is not about providing language services (that one is a given). It rather is about solving other problems, for instance related to admin or IT. Challenges such as how to integrate with a hospital system that is highly regulated or solving billing problems. THAT is where LSPs can shine and truly emerge as the partner of choice because they saved their client a lot of headaches, unnecessary admin time, and ultimately cost. 


Last but not least there is the rebranding element. “We don’t consider ourselves an LSP anymore…” is a phrase we hear a lot. As LSPs are diversifying their service offering, many are trying to come up with a name that better reflects their new reality and ultimately generates better leads. In the interpreting field we see this reflected, for instance, when RSI providers want to be seen as meeting and event platforms or interpreting service providers want to be considered communications partners (as mentioned above). 

Why are LSPs choosing to rebrand? Mostly for differentiation and marketing purposes with the ultimate goal of attracting more customers by changing the conversation. That being said, the rebranding attempts are not exclusively based on marketing ideas but are, to a certain extent, a reflection of the diversification of services we are observing in the market.

The talent shortage intensifies

Already in the 2021 edition of the Interpreting Index, we reported about a talent shortage in the interpreting market. While in the overall market for all language services this challenge has improved (see Nimdzi 100), it appears that in the interpreting industry it has intensified. In interviews for this report, as well as for the Nimdzi 100, without fail, all interpreting companies (of varying sizes) listed a shortage of interpreters as one of their key business challenges in 2023.

While true for both onsite and remote interpreting, the battle for talent seems to be particularly present for onsite assignments. LSPs of all sizes reported that ever since the pandemic and the increasing shift to remote interpreting, it has become harder to find enough interpreters to fill onsite assignments. One reason for this might be that as the pandemic hit, not all interpreters were willing to shift to remote assignments. Instead, some decided leave the profession altogether, in search of a more lucrative line of work. For many years complaints around low rates and poor working conditions have been making the rounds in interpreting circles and for some, the pandemic and move to remote was the last straw. Another reason may be the opposite side of the coin that is that certain interpreters flourished during the pandemic and now prefer remote assignments over onsite ones, due to the element of convenience of being able to work from home (or anywhere). 

Adding to the talent challenge are sudden spikes in demand, e.g. when the war in Ukraine started and suddenly interpreters with Ukrainian where in high demand. Although these kinds of spikes have always existed, the present shortage of interpreters has made it even more challenging this time around.

One side-effect of this is that interpreter education is increasingly falling onto LSPs. Although, of course, professional schools for interpreters continue to exist, some LSPs criticized that what is taught in class is often too far removed from the realities of the market. This, paired with the general shortage, means that LSPs need to carry some of the training burden — which is time-consuming and costly.

To name an example, one LSP reported that when the war in Ukraine started, there were only 4-6 Ukrainian interpreters in the whole country. So, they took it upon themselves to train so called “language supporters” that are used as helpers when people first arrive in the country and need basic information and instructions. Although these people are not considered interpreters, they can bridge some of the gaps.

Multilingual meetings: More than just interpreting and shifting toward event management

One major byproduct of the boom in virtual events caused by the pandemic was that there were more requests for multilingual meetings than ever before and in entirely new formats and compilations. What we have witnessed ever since is both the emergence of the Multilingual Meeting Provider (MMP) and the multi-skilled linguist. 

More than just interpreting

The needs of clients are shifting and buyers are increasingly looking for a provider that can do it all. Clients don’t want to go to one company for their interpreting needs, to another for translation, and again to another for captioning — and potentially all for the same event. 

Today, multilingual meetings can be facilitated in many different ways, including:

  • Captioning: Monolingual live-transcript of the conversations on screen, either facilitated by a machine, a linguist, or a mix of both.
  • Subtitling: Translated transcript of the conversation on screen, also either facilitated by a machine, a linguist, or a mix of both.
  • Interpreting: Interpreting comes in many different forms, ranging from RSI to video remote interpreting (VRI) in consecutive form, to over-the-phone interpreting (OPI), to fully automated machine interpreting (MI) using AI.
  • Respeaking/Speech-to-text interpreting: Respeaking requires the respeaker to add punctuation and other formatting to their verbal output. It can be performed in many different ways and typically requires both a linguist and a machine.
  • Document translation: Let’s not forget about all the documents that might need to be available in many different languages for onsite and virtual events.
  • Voice-over: This might be used when pre-recorded videos are played at an event.

As the market for multilingual meetings is evolving it is perhaps not surprising that this field is no longer dominated by interpreting providers alone. Other players have appeared on the scene, including machine translation providers, pure tech players from outside the language services industry, media localization companies, video conferencing giants (Zoom, MS Teams, etc.), and LSPs who traditionally only focused on VRI and OPI services and are now looking to get into the events space by adding RSI. At the same time, RSI providers — the traditional players in this field — are expanding their offering to reach a wider client base by adding features such as MI and machine-generated live subtitling.

From multilingual meeting provider to event platform

That being said, as the pandemic effect winds down, the novelty of interpreting systems and environments is also waning. Instead, what we are seeing is that the focus is increasingly shifting toward event management. In fact, we predict that over time, the different language services MMPs offer will simply become features on event platforms clients can avail of. 

While this might be in early stages, first moves have been made. For instance, RSI technology provider KUDO no longer consider themselves an RSI platform, but rather a meeting platform. For good reason, because what KUDO and others in this space offer is no longer just about interpreting. And why would a company limit themselves to “just” providing interpreting (and other multilingual) services when they can add more value to their clients and more revenue to their business by focussing on event management at large, with language services solely being an option clients can select? 
Event management is the MUCH larger market and sits at the core of any meeting, event, and conference. It is also a logical next step for RSI providers and MMPs since event management is already part of the package they offer to their clients. From the other side, the cross-over has already happened with the likes Zoom, MS Teams, and Webex — which originated in the pure meetings and events space — coming into the market for multilingual meetings by offering a number of language services, such as captioning, subtitling, transcription, summarization, and RSI.

The multi-skilled linguist: adapting to a changing market

It should come as no surprise that this trend has also trickled down to the linguists who are facilitating these meetings. The pandemic pushed many into offering a more diversified service portfolio as they sought to make ends meet. Today, many interpreters are increasingly moving into new terrain such as voiceovers, respeaking, captioning, technology consulting, and event management to stay relevant and offer a better service to their clients.

While in many cases, linguists simply upskill themselves, some LSPs are also actively facilitating the transition into new language services. For instance, media localization provider Iyuno has an open call on its website that allows anyone to record their voice and submit it to be considered for work as a voice actor. A clever move that speeds up the search for potential talent and offers a quicker in-road for those interested in going into this line of work. 

As the multilingual meeting provider develops, we can expect that the multi-skilled linguist will be in high demand.

Remote vs Onsite Interpreting: The post-pandemic equilibrium

In the 2021 edition of the Interpreting Index, we already predicted that remote interpreting is here to stay and that even after the pandemic, the split between onsite and remote interpreting will not go back to the way it was prior to March 2020. For this year’s analysis, we wanted to see if this prediction actually panned out. The results now show that according to our latest research, our prediction largely holds up, with only minor variations. For instance, we estimate that the percentage of over-the-phone interpreting (OPI) decreased ever so slightly (by 2%) and was absorbed into video remote interpreting (VRI) and RSI instead.

More noticeably, for the first time, we have added the percentage of the market occupied by hybrid meetings into the graphic. In the September 2021 version, we already mentioned hybrid meetings and estimated that in the years to come they would occupy between 10% and 20% of the market. We can now confirm that this estimate is on track and currently stands at 12%. In our graphic, the percentage for hybrid meetings overlaps with both the percentages for onsite and RSI services, as hybrid meetings typically involve a mix of both. We can expect that the market share of hybrid meetings will continue to grow going forward. 

It is worth stressing that this graph only takes into account human-facilitated interpreting and does not include the share of machine interpreting (MI). With the gain in MI, it will most likely be represented in the future market estimations. As it stands though, the MI percentage is still too low to be visualized here. 

Overall, and just as we estimated two years ago, the interpreting landscape no longer resembles that of the pre-pandemic era. 

The share of onsite interpreting is not the 80% it was, but is still a reasonable 51% (including the crossover of hybrid meetings). Remote interpreting is steadily gaining ground and we can expect this share of the market to continue to advance significantly, particularly in telehealth. However, we can note that a certain equilibrium has been achieved at this point in time in the remote versus onsite shares compared to the dramatic imbalance at the height of the pandemic. 

The role of interpreting services for diversity and inclusion

DEI, which stands for diversity, equity and inclusion, is a topic that is increasingly being talked about in our industry and society at large. As awareness increases about the importance of creating equal access to all aspects of life for everyone, people are also realizing the central role language services play in facilitating DEI. 

In the wider language services industry, examples of DEI services include (but are not limited to) closed captioning for people who are Deaf or hard of hearing and audio description (AD) for the blind and visually impaired. Both are services that, on the one hand, have existed for a long time but on the other hand are not necessarily as widely rolled out as needed to enable truly equal access. Especially AD is not available in all markets and even then, predominantly in English.  

Narrowing it down to just the interpreting industry, we want to briefly explore the role that interpreting services play in the area of DEI.

Perhaps one of the most well-known areas in this regard is sign language interpreting. Although sign language interpreting is a well-established service, there are still many misconceptions about this field. For instance, the assumption that captions are just as good, which is typically based on the mistaken belief that signed languages are based on spoken languages — which is not the case. So although Deaf people in the US can typically read and write in English, it usually is not their first, but only their second language, with the first one being American Sign Langauge (ASL). 

Which brings us to a broader point when it comes to DEI, namely that it is not only about providing equal access to people with disabilities but about enabling access for people who speak (or sign) ANY other language than the dominant one in the country (or region) they live in. This is where, interpreting services at large come in. Particularly in the business world, the assumption that “everyone speaks English” still holds strong, despite the fact that data show that only a little less than 20% of the world population speak English as a first or second language. 

Although in many markets, people can already request interpreters in official settings, such as in court or in the hospital, there is a significant gap when it comes to enabling access in all areas of life. Ranging from education, to the workforce, to leisure time. The crucial change that needs to happen to make such a world become a reality is a shift in mindset. Namely, that DEI services are not something that HAS to be provided because the law says so and that comes with a price tag, but that is it something that holds opportunities for everyone. Same as global brands localizing their content to reach end-uses in their target markets, providing interpreting services can be what makes a company stand out and attract more business. After all, if you cannot communicate with your customers, how will they buy from you?

And these days companies have many opportunities to choose from in this regard. Whether you opt for traditional onsite interpreting, remote interpreting, machine interpreting, voice overs, or even respeaking (speech-to-text interpreting) — there is an option for every setting and budget. 

On a positive note, interviews with LSPs from all areas of the market have revealed that requests for proposal (RFPs) from private as well as government clients, are increasingly including DEI clauses. A step in the right direction.

AI for the interpreting sector: Machine interpreting and CAI tools

As AI is advancing at an accelerated pace, new solutions are slowly but surely entering our everyday lives — and interpreting is no exception. So let’s take a look at the most noteworthy developments from the area of AI for the interpreting space.

Machine interpreting and speech-to-speech technology

Machine interpreting (MI) is the transmission of a spoken message in one language into a spoken message in a different language using automatic speech recognition (ASR), followed by AI transcription, machine translation, and finally a synthetic voice to speak the message in the target language. This so-called cascade model is what all MI solutions on the market to date are built on.

Current solutions can best be divided into two sections: handheld devices, ear buds, and apps for individuals (e.g. tourists), and software designed for business purposes (e.g. adding more languages to large-scale events or dubbing corporate training videos at a lower price point).

Aside from what we reported on in previous publications (see here and here), there are three main developments worth highlighting when it comes to MI:

  1. Providers of remote simultaneous interpreting (RSI) platforms (whose core business model to date was focused on facilitating interpreting by human interpreters) are starting to come into this space. In January 2023, KUDO was the first RSI platform to release its own MI feature. In May 2023, Interprefy followed suit and we can expect other large RSI platforms to jump on the same bandwagon in an effort to stay competitive — with each other but also with the video conferencing giants out there. Platforms such as Zoom, MS Teams, and Webex that have all added their own RSI features alongside other language access tools (e.g. closed captions and machine-generated live subtitles) and are typically superior when it comes to event management capabilities and price point.
  1. While we call it MI in the interpreting space, the umbrella term really is speech-to-speech translation (S2ST), which is something that is being developed in many different fields, ranging from machine translation providers, to media localization companies, to tech companies from outside the language industry. Especially in the area of AI dubbing, we can observe similar developments as in the interpreting space when it comes to S2ST. Noteworthy AI dubbing tools currently on the market come, for example, from Deepdub, Voiseed, and AppTek (among others) and new product releases are popping up all the time. While most AI dubbing solutions to date are not ready to be used for entertainment purposes yet, AI dubbing is already being used for international broadcasts, voiceovers for documentaries, and dubbing corporate videos. In addition, media and game localization providers, as well as traditional LSPs are exploring further use-cases (see here). Ultimately, what this tells us is that it is not unlikely that, when it comes to AI, we will eventually witness a convergence of the media and the interpreting segments.
  1. Aside from improving the quality of the translation, latest developments in S2ST focus on retaining the original speaker’s voice in the AI output, to make the synthetic speech sound more authentic. This is also commonly referred to as voice cloning and true for both the fields of MI and AI dubbing. A noteworthy solution (and good example of how this field is expanding) comes from Ericsson — a company from outside the language industry that does NOT provide the actual interpretation/translation. Instead, Ericsson takes the audio (and optionally video) files with the interpretation/translation (either human or machine generated) to then provide AI voice conversion and/or AI video dubbing.
    1. AI voice conversion: The audio file with the interpretation is converted to sound like the original speaker’s voice. 
    2. AI video dubbing: Ericsson uses the audio file with the interpretation to sync the video of the original speaker to make it look like the person is actually speaking the other language.

In both cases, the convergence can either happen in post-editing or live with an API (e.g. integrated into an interpreting platform). The current latency is between 0.5 and 1.0 seconds.

Another noteworthy development in this field comes from Meta AI. In June 2023 the company introduced Voicebox, a generative AI model for speech (though not publicly available yet). Voicebox predominantly functions as a text-to-speech generator for a variety of tasks, producing synthetic speech outputs in a variety of styles. The main difference between Voicebox and the model from Ericsson is that Ericsson uses audio files for its AI conversion tasks, whereas Voicebox predominantly works from text-based files. Naturally, both solutions use audio files for the voice cloning aspect but also here, there is a difference in that Ericsson uses the audio from already interpreted speeches plus the original speaker’s audio, whereas Voicebox uses translated text in combination with the original speaker’s audio. The results are similar, but the difference in input source could ultimately mean that different users will adopt the solutions depending on the use case (e.g. live conference vs generating audio and video files from purely text-based files).

CAI tools: In the works but not quite there yet

CAI stands for computer assisted interpreting and refers to tools that facilitate the interpreter’s work, similar to the role of computer assisted translation (CAT) tools for translators. There are a few such solutions available, for example smarterp&me, INTERPRETBANK, and Cymo Note. Typically CAI tools are used by interpreters who are interpreting simultaneously in a remote environment, for example on an RSI platform, but Cymo Note can also be used to facilitate consecutive interpreting. The tools function via a mix of AI solutions (e.g. speech recognition, speech-to-text translation) and manual input from the interpreters in preparation for the assignment (e.g. a glossary with specific terminology).

The aim of CAI tools is to provide interpreters with real time translations and other suggestions like numbers and names that appear on a screen while they are interpreting. In the below image from the smarterp&me CAI tool, for example, the pop-up translations in the target language (Spanish) are divided into different categories — numbers, terms, and named entities. In addition, some CAI tools even want to include conversion of units that may differ between languages, such as miles to kilometers or fahrenheit to celsius, in their later versions.

Source: smarterp&me

With all of this potential, why aren’t CAI tools widely adopted by interpreters and interpreting technology providers alike? The main reason is that as it stands, CAI tools are still underdeveloped. They often come at a price for interpreters, yet the tools’ glossary customization capabilities tend to be limited, they don’t include effective automations for extracting terminology from relevant websites or documents, and it is time-consuming for interpreters to learn the ropes of a new tool. So for now, efficiency benefits are still limited. 

To develop a CAI tool that holds the potential to be widely adopted, much still needs to be improved, which requires investment. And the question then becomes, who should fill that role? For whom would such an investment pay off? Interpreting technology providers may not see the direct financial benefits of investing in this type of software because it’s interpreter-oriented, not client-oriented. Interpreters are somewhat reluctant to create and improve glossaries that can be recycled by the machines. Academia is a bit slow off the mark and tends to lack the financial means to roll out effective technological solutions. 

That being said, change is occurring — albeit slowly. Interpreting technology providers, in particular RSI platforms, are beginning to see the added value of having a more efficient interpreter workflow, and interpreters are increasingly adopting new technologies. After all, the possible benefits of CAI tools are considerable. For the interpreters, a good CAI tool can mean less preparation time and enhanced performance (benefitting the client as well). For RSI providers (as well as LSPs), having a well-functioning CAI tool available means being able to offer clients a wider pool of interpreters at a moment’s notice as even new interpreters on the roster can be brought up to speed quickly thanks to adapted glossaries and the assistance of a CAI tool during the assignment. In addition, CAI tools function as an interface that allows for client-interpreter exchange of documents, removing the need for an intermediary from the provider side, thus saving cost and further increasing efficiencies.

We do not have the answer as to who will invest in CAI tool development, but without it, it could easily become the type of technology that just never got off the shelf.


The interpreting industry has had a bumpy ride over the past few years. The COVID-19 pandemic posed an almost existential threat to the industry, which managed to pull-through and adapt to the changing times.

Although interpreting service providers struggled at the start of the pandemic, they bounced back and are recording faster growth than in the past. As a reminder, 25 of the 34 companies on our ranking recorded positive growth in 2021 and 2022. New players also came onto the scene, like RSI companies which are featuring on the ranking for the first time, their tech services now inextricably linked with the provision of interpreting services. Investment in OPI/VRI providers is paying off and a sign language interpreting provider has snapped up second place in the ranking — also a first.

Interpreting has essentially gone mainstream, receiving far more attention than ever before and occupying a more central role in the language services industry. Demand for interpreting services is booming, the technology is advancing rapidly, and interpreting as a vector for DEI is gaining traction.

So, the message is a mainly positive one — our industry is capable of adaptation and overcoming economic uncertainty, essentially re-inventing itself to come back stronger than before. 

Did you know? The Nimdzi Interpreting Index is available for download!

This report was researched and co-written by Sarah Hickey, Nimdzi's VP of Research. If you wish to learn more about the interpreting market, reach out to Sarah at [email protected].

This report was researched and co-written by Rosemary Hynes, Nimdzi's Lead Interpreting Researcher. If you wish to learn more about the interpreting market, reach out to Rosemary at [email protected].

7 August 2023

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