Interpreting Across the Globe: No One Size Fits AllPublic 

The interpreting market is a diverse and complex sector within the language industry. There are different modes — consecutive, simultaneous, and whispered interpreting — and different modalities, i.e. onsite, over-the-phone (OPI), and video-remote interpreting (VRI). There are different types of interpreting, like medical, legal, community, and conference interpreting and all of them come with their own requirements.

So, it’s not surprising that the interpreting market is…well…a bit of a mess.

A lot has happened on the interpreting market in the last few years. On the one hand, interpreting has become more significant and scalable, but there has also been a lot of turmoil and change.

We took this as an incentive to take a closer look at the individual interpreting markets in a number of countries across the globe.

Information contained in this report

Keep reading or download the full report as a PDF!

The project

We invested hundreds of hours of research into this project. We conducted more than 20 briefings with in-country experts, ranging from Language Service Providers (LSPs) to associations to interpreters. In addition, we consulted online resources such as websites from governments, associations, and annual reports from large providers.

We wanted to find out how different interpreting markets are run, what is going well, what is not going so well and identify trends, gaps, opportunities to essentially bring some method to the madness. 

The 12 countries we examined were the US, the UK, the Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Spain, Belgium, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland.

The market

To start off, let’s take a brief look at some key components of the different markets.

Market split

In the overwhelming majority of countries, the public sector makes up the largest portion of the market. The exception here is the United States. This is because in the US, the healthcare market is the largest sector but unlike in other countries healthcare is not part of the public sector.

In the split between onsite and remote, the below graph illustrates that in most countries the market for onsite is still the largest one. However, all four Nordic markets and Canada have a considerable remote market. The clear frontrunner for remote interpreting are the Netherlands. It is worth noting that 80% of the market in the Netherlands falls into the public sector, and 80 percent of the market is remote interpreting. Countries looking to move more towards remote interpreting, should take a closer look at the Dutch market.

Main sectors

We have identified four main sectors for interpreting and while most countries require interpreting services across all of these, the below graph highlights which ones are most dominant in which country.

For some markets the results were quite clear from the beginning, e.g. that medical interpreting is the dominant sector in the US and that courts/legal/police is the dominant sector in the UK. However, there were a few surprising findings:

  • In Spain, the market is split almost entirely between court (44-45 percent) and police (42 percent) interpreting. Despite healthcare falling into the public sector, there is next to no medical interpreting in Spain.
  • In Belgium the interpreting market centres almost entirely around the national courts and the European institutions. There is some court interpreting, although very little, and essentially no community or medical interpreting. 
  • In Russia the main interpreting market is conference interpreting for large publicly owned enterprises. Similar to Belgium, there is next to no community and medical interpreting.

Interpreter certifications

We also assessed the level of availability of interpreter certifications per country. In the below overview, the batteries indicate the level of availability per country:

  • Three bars: Countries where university degrees, special schools and high level association accreditation are available for interpreting. 
  • Two bars: Countries that have government certifications, lower level schools, and lower level accreditations available for interpreting.
  • One bar: Countries with no official interpreting certifications or accreditations. In these countries,  LSPs often train their own interpreters.

When it comes to certifications, it is important to keep in mind that:

  • Just because certifications are available, does not mean that it is a requirement to use a certified interpreter (depending on the scenario).
  • Certifications are often only available for a handful of languages – the most common ones – and when in need, clients and LSPs will use whoever is available.
  • Just because someone is not certified, does not mean they’re not a good interpreter.

The three R’s for interpreting: Right, Requirement and Revenue

There are essentially three main reasons why interpreting services are being provided.

In many countries, it is a civil right for people to have access to an interpreter in public settings, in courts, and in healthcare. This is true for most countries we examined. It is also worth pointing out that in Sweden it is even a mutual right, which means that in the hospital it’s not only the patients who have the right to an interpreter but also the hospital staff.

In addition, in most countries it is a legal requirement for interpreters to be present during court hearings – particularly in criminal proceedings – and sometimes also in other official matters like immigration and healthcare. In multilingual countries like Belgium, Canada, and Finland, it is also mandatory to have interpreting services for all official matters in the parliament – at least on the federal/national level.

Then there is the business side, where companies use interpreting to increase their revenue by offering services in multiple languages. This is true for all countries, but particularly for Russia and the US.

The four pillars

The interpreting market in every country essentially stands on four pillars:

  • The end user
  • The buyer
  • The provider
  • The government

The end-user

There are four groups of end users:

  1. Immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers
  2. Residents and citizens
  3. Members of Parliament and business people
  4. Tourists and other foreign consumers

In the majority of countries, the first two groups are the main end users of interpreting services. 

The exception to this rule are Belgium and Russia. This does not mean that there is no demand for this demographic in Belgium and Russia but it is not the largest group in these two countries.

The next group are Members of Parliament (MEPs), e.g. in Canada, Belgium, and Finland, as well as business people. We have put these two groups together, as they both fall into the category of conference interpreting.

The last group then are tourists, although they generally make up a very small percentage. That being said, the percentage for this group is a little bit higher in the US, Australia, and in Spain.

The buyer

In most countries, the government is the largest buyer of interpreting services because as illustrated earlier, the public sector is the dominant market in most countries, with the exception of the US.

The second largest buyers then are private businesses, such as companies, lawyers, banks, insurances, and in the US also hospitals. We loosely grouped these under “corporate”.

The third and by far the smallest category are individuals. It is very uncommon for individuals to purchase interpreting services directly, as it is usually the institutions that serve the customers that are the ones that pay. However, there are three countries that have an exception to this rule:

  • Denmark: There is a new law in place that people only have a right to an interpreter for the first two years of living in the country. After that they are expected to either speak Danish or pay for their own interpreter.
  • Spain: People do not have the right to an interpreter in medical settings and in civil proceedings, so if one is needed, the individual has to pay.
  • Belgium: People do not have the right to an interpreter in medical settings or when receiving social services. The expectation is for people to either speak one of the local languages or English. 

The provider

The third pillar is the provider.

In most countries, LSPs are the largest providers of interpreting services. 

This is closely followed professional individual interpreters who have their own direct clients.

The third category are in-house agencies. It is not uncommon for government entities to have their own interpreting staff. For example, in the Netherlands 50 percent of the interpreting requirements are currently being handled by in-house government agencies, although this is about to change as the government plans to tender all business over the next two years. Also, in the US, many hospitals have staff interpreters for the most common languages.

The last category are volunteers, which can actually be split into two sub-categories: 

  1. People using their friend or relative to interpret for them. 
  2. Volunteer platforms, i.e. people offering interpreting services for free to, for example, charity organizations. These can either be professional interpreters or people who are simply bilingual.

The government

The government is the fourth pillar and plays a huge role across all interpreting markets. Not only because it defines language access rights, how the country is run, and who receives funding, but also by deciding how government contracts are structured. This can vary from country to country – and sometimes from contract to contract. We have identified five different types of contracts across the globe:

Single provider

As the name suggests, in this type of government contract, the contract goes to just one single provider. It is an exclusive contract and there is no backup provider. This contract type is common in most countries, with the exception of Belgium where assignments are mostly awarded on an ad hoc basis. This contract type is the most dominant one in the Netherlands, in Norway, in Spain, in Russia, and in Denmark.

Fixed ranking

In this contract type, several providers are chosen and there is a fixed ranking. This means there is one primary provider that gets all assignments and only if this provider cannot deliver, the assignment is offered to the second on the list, and so on. This is again a contract type that is common in most countries (except Belgium). It is the dominant contract type in Sweden.

Dynamic ranking

The dynamic ranking starts out the same as the fixed ranking but there is a revision every six months. Providers on the list hand in a report with any complaints and contract deviations and based on this, the ranking can be revised. This contract type is the dominant one in Finland.


Government frameworks are the main system in the UK. There are lots of different government frameworks, with different prices and conditions, that the different government institutions can choose to join. LSPs first have to bid to be part of the framework but even if accepted, this does not guarantee any business yet. However, it allows LSPs to then bid on the different contracts that the various government institutions tender under the framework. The individual contracts are then usually awarded to one single provider.

Panel of providers

In this contract type, several providers are chosen for one contract (usually five or six). There is no preferred provider, no ranking, and every provider has equal access to the customers within the contract. To give an example, there could be a healthcare contract for a certain region and all hospitals are covered under this contract. The hospitals then have the list of approved providers and can choose their preferred provider. However, customers are not bound to any provider and can technically switch for every single assignment. This type of government contract is common in Australia.


Now that the key components of the markets are clear, let’s take a look at a few drivers in the interpreting market.

Key influencers

There are three key influencers for interpreting.

The demand

The interpreting services in every country are highly influenced by who needs the service and in what kind of situation. This is driven by the level of immigration, the country’s international relations and the economy.

The government

The government has a huge influence on the interpreting market in every nation. First of all because the government is responsible for passing language access laws. This can be influenced by whether the country has a history of multilingualism and also by the level of immigration.

It is also the government that decides how the country is run. Is the country split into regions or states? Who has what responsibility? All of this influences interpreting services.

Last but not least, the level of funding the government invests into interpreting services has a big impact on the market.

The infrastructure

Geography is a factor for interpreting markets. If there are vast distances between cities and regions, or lots of remote villages, it will be harder to get interpreters to assignments. This could on the other hand be a driver for remote interpreting. It also matters if a country has certain interpreting hubs, like for example in Belgium where the market centres around Brussels. These hubs then dominate the market and set rates and standards.

The technological infrastructure also plays a big role. How solid the internet connection in public places and remote regions is, can either be a driver or a blocker for remote solutions. 

Multilingualism is not a driver

Contrary to our expectations going into this project, it turns out that multilingualism is not a driver for interpreting services.

We looked into Belgium, Finland, and Canada, which are all countries that have more than one official language and found the following:


The country’s multilingualism mainly affects government interpreting, where is it mandatory to have interpreting for all official languages. It does, however, not affect community interpreting because there is a real separation between the different language regions. Due to the country’s history, French speakers for example have no rights to receive services in their language in the Dutch region and vice versa.


In Finland, bilingualism also mainly affects government interpreting but not community interpreting. Swedish speakers have the right to receive services in Swedish but there is no interpreting required for this.


In Canada, the country’s bilingualism affects interpreting more than in Belgium and in Finland but it is also mainly required for conferences and official government business. This is again because the different language regions are quite separate from one another. 

Price drivers

We also assessed what drives pricing in the interpreting market.

Mode and Modality
: There can be different prices depending on mode (consecutive, simultaneous, whispered) and modality (onsite, OPI, VRI).

Language rarity
: The rarer a language, the higher the rate as there will be fewer interpreters who can fill assignments.

: Interpreters often require special certifications for court or medical interpreting. As this is an add-on to any basic certification, rates tend to be higher for interpreters with these kinds of specializations.

Geographical location
: If the assignment is located in an interpreting hub, like Brussels, rates will be different than in more remote locations.

Government budget
: The more government funding, the higher rates and margins tend to be.

Three biggest challenges

Throughout our research, we identified three main challenges that stood out across the board.

Price pressure

Price pressure was the first one, named by absolutely everyone.

While the demand for interpreting services is increasing due to globalization, immigration, the ongoing refugee crisis and also an aging population – which in general affects health services and therefore also medical interpreting – government budgets are continuously being cut.

This means that particularly in the public sector, price pressure is high. In most countries, LSPs are responding to this pressure with a price battle – because more often than not, the cheapest wins. This is slowly but surely becoming a race to the bottom.

While this might still work out for a while, this is not a sustainable situation and in some countries the knock-on effects can already be felt.

Which brings us to the second challenge…

Scarcity of interpreters

… a scarcity of interpreters.

There is not actually a scarcity of interpreters, but there is a scarcity of trained interpreters because as rates and working conditions are dropping, professional interpreters are either going on strike or leaving the profession altogether. 

Given that in some countries, community interpreters earn only slightly more than the minimum wage, some have started to move on to better paid and less stressful professions.

Adding to this is that most countries only provide accreditation tests for the most common languages. When a new language enters the market (e.g. through immigration), it might take up to a year before accreditation materials are available – but of course in the meantime the demand already has to be supplied.

The knock-on effect is that LSPs have to increasingly use untrained people. In medical and court interpreting, this can potentially be a high risk for the buyer. It also means that LSPs are then often left with taking on the training burden themselves, which requires extra resources and significantly reduces the Return on Investment. 

And while it might be alright to use someone who is “just” bilingual for simple assignments, LSPs and buyers should make sure to have the right interpreter for the job for anything more high-stakes.

An unregulated market

The third and possibly biggest challenge and that is that the interpreting market is highly unregulated, which comes with many challenges within itself. For example:

  • There are no industry standards
  • There are no fixed prices
  • “Interpreter” is not a protected job title, which means that technically anyone can be an interpreter
  • Some countries don’t have comprehensive language access laws or they can be quite vague, so that people either don’t have to use interpreters at all or don’t have to use professional interpreters. This then often leads to people using friends and relatives, and even children to interpret for them.

All of these points make the interpreting market very difficult to navigate.

The three biggest opportunities

But, where’s a challenge, there’s an opportunity, and we identified three major ones across the different markets.

It should come as no surprise that all of them center around the use of technology.

Video remote interpreting

Across the globe, everyone names video remote interpreting (VRI) as the number one opportunity for growth.

VRI has a number of advantages:

Further reach:

  • LSPs can use VRI to offer interpreting services in remote regions (esp. in countries with vast distances) without the struggle of having to figure out how to get interpreters to remote locations. 
  • LSPs can be competitive on the international market. Because VRI does not require a pool of local interpreters, it is much easier to offer services abroad.

Tap into more resources:

  • Given that the interpreters work remotely, LSPs can use interpreters from anywhere in the world and thus have access to a much larger pool of linguists and languages.

New markets:

  • VRI has made it possible to provide remote simultaneous interpreting for online meetings, and has thereby opened up a completely new market. 
  • VRI has also allowed providers to sell interpreting services to people who could previously not afford them. This is because VRI removes the need for costly equipment like interpreting booths. This has also made it possible to provide interpreting for meetings in smaller meeting rooms that don’t have the capacity for booths.

However, despite all these advantages, VRI still only represents less than 10 percent of the markets we examined. This is largely due to two main blockers:

  1. A Lacking infrastructure: A solid internet connection is an essential requirement for VRI but can be a challenge in remote regions and public places. In the UK, for example, some hospitals don’t have WiFi or 4G. Once 5G arrives onto the scene, this issue is expected to be resolved. However, until then, it remains a blocker for VRI. 
  2. Client acceptance: People are scared of change and like to use what they know. Many clients therefore still resort to either onsite interpreting or OPI, so there is a need for client education.

Nimdzi has done extensive research into the area of Virtual Interpreting Technology (VIT). Our VIT overview and compare tool has a selection of profiles of VIT companies and is continuously being updated and extended.


The next opportunity is one that is more born out necessity but it is nonetheless a good one — automation.

LSPs everywhere are using Interpreter Management Systems (IMS) to automate repetitive tasks and make their workflows more efficient. This is largely – though not only – a response to the price pressure in the public sector. As LSPs are trying to pay their interpreters a fair wage to keep the talent, and margins are dropping, using an IMS is a great way to cut costs.

While an IMS is an investment in itself that a few years ago only the large players could afford, this technology has become affordable so that now even smaller players have access to it and can use it to stay competitive.

Interpreter networks

This trend is not as wide-spread yet but certainly presents a fantastic opportunity.

In the US, some hospitals use joined networks to share their in-house interpreting staff for OPI and VRI assignments. Whenever interpreters have downtime, they can offer their services to other hospitals in the network. The challenge here is that this is currently still hardware reliant and not cloud-based yet. 

In Canada, some LSPs have started to use joined platforms to operate as backend for one another. Whenever one LSP has a language or assignment request they cannot fulfil, one of the other LSPs can provide the service.

By using joined platforms, LSPs can more easily outsource their work and provide a larger portfolio. This makes them more competitive and can potentially even lead to mergers between LSPs in the network.

The Good, the bad, and the ugly

Throughout our research, we gathered a lot of stories about what is going well, what could be improved, and what went horribly wrong, or: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

The Good: success stories

In Australia, it has been commonplace for a few years now that LSPs pay reduced rates to their interpreters from the second hour onwards. This trend was started by the largest provider ONCALL but everyone else followed. It led to protests by interpreters and was also a real challenge for small and medium-sized providers. A few LSPs, like 2M Language Services and Translationz, have now broken away from this again and are seeing the rewards. While it might sound counterintuitive to pay higher rates, doing so gave these LSPs a competitive advantage as more interpreters wanted to work with them again (in the end everyone uses the same ones), which has in turn led to more growth.

Also in Australia, interpreters joined a trade union not too long ago which lead to certain state governments, e.g. Victoria, injecting more funding into interpreting.

In Canada, the government funding for interpreting is generally quite high and the government has for example invested thousands of dollars into development of interpreter accreditations. 

Since July 2016 Norway has made it illegal to use children as interpreters. This is not only a great achievement in terms of respecting child labor laws and protecting children from potential trauma. It is also a win for professional interpreters and LSPs who are competing in the market and defending their value.

In Denmark, the company Tolkegruppen provides psychologist for ad hoc demands of interpreters. A wonderful step towards caring for interpreters’ mental health and keeping the talent.

The Bad: room for improvement

This section brings us back around to the challenges of price pressure and a scarcity of interpreters in an unregulated market.

Both in the US and in the UK LSPs are struggling to find interpreters and keep the talent because of low rates and challenging working conditions. There is a consensus that interpreters need to have an incentive to stay in the industry. The struggle is similar in Sweden where many interpreters have other day or night jobs to make ends meet.

In Finland, the government wants to see new service providers on the market but the requirements set out in government tenders – especially the infamous Hansel contract – are making this next to impossible. LSPs are for example required to provide customer references, which are hard to come by for someone who hasn’t worked in the market yet.

Belgium is a country that technically holds lots of opportunities given that it is multi-lingual and very international. However, the country is not very entrepreneurial-friendly as it is extremely costly for LSPs to open a local entity. Plus it comes with a lot of bureaucracy and the approval process takes up to two years.

While Canada is overall a quite mature market, hospitals are not obliged to use professional interpreters or any interpreters at all. So there is a large sector that potentially holds a lot more opportunities if the value of interpreting services can be conveyed.

The Ugly: scandals and failures

Last but not least, a few examples of what went wrong or is currently posing a threat to different interpreting markets, divided into three categories:

Centralization and the single provider

In Denmark, the by far largest contract by the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is at the time of writing, in 2019, being held by just one single provider — EasyTranslate. Lower rates and new conditions have led to protests and strikes by interpreters and in some cases, trials had to be adjourned because no interpreter was available. In one case, the police even had to let a shoplifter go.

The situation in Denmark brings back memories of the MOJ contract in the UK a few years ago. After centralization, Applied Language Solutions (ALS) was awarded the contract as the single provider but could then not deliver. ALS was subsequently acquired by Capita Translation and Interpreting, who also took over the MOJ contract. Over the course of the five-year contract 2,600 court cases had to be adjourned because interpreters did not show up.

This is what is commonly referred to as a false economy. It describes situations where something started out as a cost saving measure (e.g. high level of centralization and a single provider), but ultimately ended up costing more (e.g. the additional costs rescheduling trials).

The MOJ contract in the UK has since been divided into four lots, of which thebigword has won the interpreting lot.

Legal changes

In the US, Trump administration has proposed to replace court interpreters with pre-recorded videos as the main means of informing immigrants facing deportation of their rights. It is intended as a cost-saving measure and if implemented, would pose a significant threat to court interpreting in the US.

Also in the US, the California State Senate has passed a new bill to protect workers in the gig-economy by requiring employers to grant them full employee status. While this is a great step for actual gig-workers, translators and interpreters also fall under the so-called AB5 law. As most translators and interpreters are established entrepreneurs that work for many clients, this law is threatening the livelihood of both translators, interpreters, and the LSPs that work with them. 

In Denmark, there is a new law in place that states that people only have the right to an interpreter for the first two years of living in the country. After that, people have to organize and pay for their own interpreters, which ultimately encourages the use of volunteers and children as interpreters. A similar law is currently being discussed in Sweden.

Payment disputes

There have been a number of large scale payment disputes between interpreters and the ones who hire them.

In Australia, for example, interpreters went on strike after VITS LanguageLoop kept the extra funding they received from the government for themselves, without transferring anything onto the interpreters.

A few years ago, Canadian provider Abel Translations was sued and taken to court because they did not pay their interpreters. Something similar happened in Belgium, when a while back a number of court interpreters were not getting paid. In the end, the interpreters had to go to court to get paid by the courts.

Key Takeaways

We have compiled a few key takeaways and recommendations based on our research across the 12 interpreting markets.

The centralization Goldilocks zone

In every country, the level of centralization of government contracts has a huge impact on the interpreting market. After examining the different situations in the 12 countries, we found that there is a Centralization Goldilocks Zone in which the markets flourish best.

Low centralization

In countries with low government centralization, the market tends to be messy, for both the provider and the buyer. There are lots of small players and individual interpreters that compete for a myriad of small contracts and individual assignments. For both the buyer and the provider this usually means that a lot of time is wasted on the procurement process and there is usually an overload of bureaucracy. In these markets, we won’t see many large players because it is much harder for an LSP to make significant profits. Examples of this are countries like Germany, France, Italy, and Belgium.

High centralization

In countries with high government centralization, usually one or two large players occupy the majority of the market. While this significantly reduces the time spent on procurement, it also means that these one or two large players are in a monopoly position. This poses a number of risks that can have a negative knock-on effect:

  • The provider(s) can do whatever they want in terms of rates and who they use for assignments.
  • If rates drop significantly, there is a high risk that professional interpreters start leaving the profession.
  • This is turn can lead to a drop in fill-rates and an increase in the use of untrained people being used for assignments, both of which ultimately increase costs when for example court hearings have to be adjourned. We have seen examples of this in the UK in the past and are currently seeing a similar trend in Denmark.
  • The market becomes stagnant. Smaller players will either fade away or become backup for large ones, which creates a two tier market.

Medium centralization: the Goldilocks Zone

A medium level of centralization is the Goldilocks Zone countries should aim for. In these markets there are enough players for a lively market — both small, medium, and large.

This means there is a healthy level of competition and opportunity for growth. It also reduces the risk for government buyers as there are enough providers to supply the demand without the risk of creating a monopoly position.

Examples of this can be found in Australia, the US, Canada, and the UK.

The recipe for success in government contracts

We also assessed the different types of government contracts to see which one works best.

Single provider

This type of contract really only works when there are enough medium-sized contracts in the market to allow for a healthy level of competition. In this scenario, everyone gets a piece of the pie and there is room for growth. However, if the single provider system is applied to only a few large contracts, it creates a monopoly position and the market can become stagnant. It also creates a high risk for the buyer if the chosen provider cannot deliver.

Fixed ranking

The problem with contracts that use a fixed ranking is that all LSPs take from the same pool of interpreters. This means that if the primary provider — who is usually the largest one — cannot fill an assignment, why would the second or third on the list be able to?

Dynamic ranking

The idea of having a dynamic ranking with a revision every six months sounds good. However, the reality is that no matter what, the ranking never changes, rendering the system useless.


The framework system from the UK has the upside that it also gives smaller players a chance. However, the system is extremely messy. There is a large number of buyers and no central buyer. There are, for example 40 to 50 different healthcare contracts and 16 different police contracts that are all tendered under different frameworks. This makes it very complex for both the buyer and the provider.

Panel of providers

Awarding a contract to a panel of providers without choosing a primary provider, is the contract type that holds most opportunities. Giving every provider on the panel equal access to clients, makes for a very dynamic market that gives more players a chance. Having to compete for theoretically every assignment guarantees a healthy level of competition.

What interpreting needs now

We identified three things the interpreting market needs now.

PR & lobbying

PR & lobbying

The industry needs to control the conversation and highlight the value of professional interpreting services. This should be embraced by the associations in the different markets, who should try to tackle this together. 

Sales training

The industry is currently driven by procurement and not by sales. This is why pricing is so much of an issue. Good sales will deliver value and provides a more professional approach. Large providers like LanguageLine Solutions have already embraced this and invested into strong sales teams. 



A better internet connection in remote areas and public settings is needed to allow for VRI to take off and expand the market. 5G is expected to be a game changer for this and much, much more. 

Of course, all of these changes might create new challenges, like new equipment standards for VRI, but that is just the nature of the game. It is important to remember that every challenge and every gap is an opportunity that presents room for growth – and there is still plenty of that.

To find out more about the global interpreting market, check out the Nimdzi Interpreting Index or contact us at

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